Soci Quiz 8 GENDER Flashcards

Additionally, the societal perception of pink collar jobs tends to position them as lesser than traditionally male-dominated professions. Positions like teaching and administrative work are often perceived as lower-paying jobs with less prestige and upward mobility. This type of bias can influence individuals’ career choices, and perpetuate the underrepresentation of men in these fields. This phenomenon is not limited to low-skilled occupations, and women cannot educate themselves out of the gender wage gap (at least in terms of broad formal credentials). Indeed, women’s educational attainment outpaces men’s; 37.0 percent of women have a college or advanced degree, as compared with 32.5 percent of men (CPS ORG 2015).

Those keen on downplaying the gender wage gap often claim women voluntarily choose lower pay by disproportionately going into stereotypically female professions or by seeking out lower-paid positions. As opposed to weekly or annual earnings, hourly earnings ignore the fact that men work more hours on average throughout a week or year. Thus, the hourly gender wage gap is a bit smaller than the 79 percent figure cited earlier.

Men’s entrance into female-dominated jobs could also help reduce potential labor market shortages, like those expected in health care. Depending on the job, such position may provide men with greater job stability and employment opportunities, given the high projected job growth of many female-dominated jobs. The emergence of pink collar jobs can be traced back to World War I. During this time, women were called upon to fill positions left vacant by men who were drafted into the military.

  1. Currently, at least 72% of occupations in information technology, science and engineering are occupied by men.
  2. One 2008 study found that “52 percent of highly qualified females working for SET [science, technology, and engineering] companies quit their jobs, driven out by hostile work environments and extreme job pressures” (Hewlett et al. 2008).
  3. Find useful tips on What to Wear to a Teacher Interview to better prepare for an interview in education.
  4. In addition, 63 percent of women in SET workplaces experience sexual harassment (Hewlett et al. 2008).

To the extent that availability to work long and particular hours makes the difference between getting a promotion or seeing one’s career stagnate, women are disadvantaged. Although Esme’s dreams were made a little bit more real, the reality is that protective service occupations, which include police and firefighters, are made up of 84% male workers. For little girls like her across the world, the change can’t come fast enough. Cleaning roles, teaching, clerical support and food preparation are also dominated by female workers – to the tune of at least 60%.

Young women may be discouraged from certain career paths because of industry culture. Even for women who go against the grain and pursue STEM careers, if employers in the industry foster an environment hostile to women’s participation, the share of women in these occupations will be limited. One 2008 study found that “52 percent of highly qualified females working for SET [science, technology, and engineering] companies quit their jobs, driven out by hostile work environments and extreme job pressures” (Hewlett et al. 2008). As compared with men, more than twice as many women engage in housework on a daily basis, and women spend twice as much time caring for other household members (BLS 2015). Because of these cultural norms, women are less likely to be able to handle these extreme work pressures. In addition, 63 percent of women in SET workplaces experience sexual harassment (Hewlett et al. 2008).

Top 10 Occupations of Working Women

Professionals in the pink collar workforce will need to upskill to stay relevant and competitive, embracing new technologies, and adapting to the changing job market. Education programs, workshops, and career development opportunities will be essential in fostering the necessary skills to succeed. For example, aspiring administrative assistants may benefit from courses in computer software, communication, and office organization. Receptionists and customer service representatives, on the other hand, may need training in customer service or conflict resolution techniques. It is not uncommon for individuals pursuing pink collar careers to seek out vocational schools, community colleges, or online programs to help them attain the education and training necessary for their chosen profession. Moreover, men’s entrance into female-dominated jobs may push along what we, and many other scholars, see as a needed shift in how the culture values work traditionally done by women.

Various occupations in the healthcare sector, aside from nursing, can be considered pink collar jobs. Dental hygienists, dental assistants, medical assistants, and dieticians all contribute to providing quality healthcare services in their respective fields. Additionally, social workers, librarians, and interior designers often cultivate expertise in delivering specialized care or services within their industry. Pink collar jobs gained prominence in the latter half of the 20th century, as more women entered the workforce seeking employment opportunities beyond domestic work. Despite their growing presence in the job market, women faced discrimination in hiring, pay, and job security.

Further compounding this problem is that many professions where pay is set too low by market forces, but which clearly provide enormous social benefits when done well, are female-dominated. Key examples range from home health workers jobs that have been feminized, such as teaching or secretarial work, are also referred to as who care for seniors, to teachers and child care workers who educate today’s children. If closing gender pay differences can help boost pay and professionalism in these key sectors, it would be a huge win for the economy and society.

Where women work: Female-dominated occupations and sectors

Examining the hourly gender wage gap allows for a more thorough conversation about how many factors create the wage gap women experience when they cash their paychecks. Many of these skeptics contend that the gender wage gap is driven not by discrimination, but instead by voluntary choices made by men and women—particularly the choice of occupation in which they work. And occupational differences certainly do matter—occupation and industry account for about half of the overall gender wage gap (Blau and Kahn 2016). The gender division in pink collar jobs has led to a lack of diversity and inclusion in these industries. In many cases, men tend to be underrepresented, particularly in fields like caregiving and nursing.

Youth skills: tackling challenges and seizing opportunities for a brighter future of work

Inclusion and diversity initiatives are gradually establishing their presence across work sectors, with many companies taking active steps to facilitate a more diverse and inclusive workforce. Pink collar jobs will continue to benefit from these efforts, as organizations strive to recruit skilled workers who bring different perspectives and backgrounds to the table. Women’s participation in STEM fields, for instance, is forecasted to accelerate, empowering them with the tools and knowledge to excel in these traditionally male-dominated areas. Asked to name the traditional careers typically pursued by women, most of us could easily come up with the jobs that employ the most women. Together, these three occupations provide jobs for around 12 percent of all working women.

Research Finds Some Men Are Working More Traditional “Female” Jobs

These roles typically included office work, nursing, teaching, and other occupations that were traditionally seen as suitable for women. To isolate the impact of overt gender discrimination—such as a woman being paid less than her male coworker for doing the exact same job—it is typical to adjust for such characteristics. But these adjusted statistics can radically understate the potential for gender discrimination to suppress women’s earnings. This is because gender discrimination does not occur only in employers’ pay-setting practices. In the last few decades, many high-paying jobs that are mostly done by men – like manufacturing – have contracted or disappeared. At the same time, many jobs in fields dominated by women – like education and health care – have significantly increased.

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If the past history of employer pay-setting practices that disadvantage women has led to an already-existing gender wage gap for this couple, it can be seen as “rational” for this couple to prioritize the male’s career. This perpetuates the expectation that it always makes sense for women to shoulder the majority of domestic work, and further exacerbates the gender wage gap. As of 2020, only 6.5 percent of women worked in male-dominated industries (industries with no more than 25 percent women). The percentage of women in those fields has not moved up much in the past few years.

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